At least once in his life, almost every fan of photography had trouble getting close to a beautiful bug, flower, or another little thing. Usually we already have an image in our minds of how such a photograph should look. Many have seen and admired the excellent macro-photographs from masters of the genre, but as soon as you bring the lens to the object, the camera can’t focus properly to get the right image. Most of the photos can be so disappointing that one tries to take a close picture at the lowest focal length of a normal lens.
There are several ways to create a decent macro, but the easiest way to get high quality, detailed macro photos is with a macro lens.
Macro lenses are designed to obtain a very short minimum focal length to facilitate taking closed shots of small objects. The task of such lenses is to reproduce full size or slightly less objects. What does this mean? For example, we all saw a large image of a small object (a large formit calendar). Of course, the flowers here are drawn at a size larger than their natural value. If you have a fairly large print of something, it could be more than full size. The purpose of a macro lens is to reproduce a full-size object in matrix or film. For example, if you take a picture of a small coin using a macro object that can reproduce a full-size image, the size of the image on the matrix is the same in real life.
The potential of a macro lenser to reproduce the size of objects is indicated by the maximum increase in increase. The coefficient of a lens capable of reproducing them at full size is 1:1 (or 1x). A macro lens with a coefficient of 1:2 (or 0.5x) can reproduce objects half their actual size. A lens capable of reproducing an object twice its actual size with a coefficient of 2:1 (or 2x). Most macro lenses have a coefficient of 1:1 or 1:2.
Care should be taken when making your choice. There are many lenses on the market, especially among zooms that are advertised as being capable of macro. If your task is to shoot close-up shots of small objects, it is worth paying particular attention to the increasing coefficients of these lenses. This is because many of them are not even close to the required 1:1 or even 1:2.
Macro lenses have a few more interesting features, aside from the possibility of close-up photography. Most normal lenses have a sharp image in the center and blurring around the edges (although this is usually less noticeable due to the depth of sharpness of the lens). Special macro lenses are developed so that the image is perfectly focused from one edge of the frame to the other.
Focal length is the distance between the optical center of the lens and the focal point. This is one of the main characteristics to keep in mind when selecting a macro lens. The greater the focal length, i.e., the more «telephoto» this macro lens is, the greater the increase you will get from it. This is not necessary since macro lenses with various focal lengths increase the increase by 1:1.
In this photo, Laowa 24 mm f/14 Replay 2x Macro Lens. Source: DentalPhotomaster.com
The main difference when using a normal or wide angle macro object compared to a long focus is the different minimum focal lengths. Macro photography calls it the working distance or subject distance. Longer focus lenses increase the distance compared to shorter focus lenses. The advantage of increasing subject distance is the ability to remove objects at longer distances. This may not be as important when photographing plants or inanimate objects, but when shooting animals (yes, insects are animals too), additional distance may be necessary to avoid scaring the «model». Also, the depth sharpness of a longer focus lens will be lower. This can be an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on the type of photograph you wish to acquire. Finally, the additional working distance helps to avoid casting shadows on the object being photographed.
Do you find that macro photography allows for greater focal lengths? It is an option because shorter focus lenses have advantages.
Canon EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM. source: Maya-Ethnobotany.org
In general, Barov focus lenses are smaller in size, lighter and less expensive than their longer focus analogues, but reach the same incremental increase. If you only occasionally make Maxine, carrying a small, light macro lenser is much more justified than bothering with a heavier, larger telephoto macro.
Below is a list of macro lenses with increases over 1:2 from various brands and on various camera lines.
Macro lenses with increases greater than 1:2
Canon EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens. Source: bhphotovideo.com
At the moment, the Canon line is over 50 different macro lenses. Here you can find exotic options such as the MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5x Macro. This is an increase of increases reaching 5:1.
For APS-C users, Canon with EF-S bayonet has two options-EF-S 35mm f/2.8 Macro is STM and EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM. The coefficient is 1:1. For full-frame mirrors, the EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM can be recommended. This will also provide natural size reproduction. Line L has a macro lens with optically stabilized EF-S 100mm f/2.8L Macro, a USM with a play-in factor of 1:1. Also don’t forget the EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro US M-EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro object with a 1:1 coefficient.
Also three lenses with shift and tilt (tilt/shift) possibilities also have a 1:2 increase. These are the TS-E 50mm f/2.8L Macro Tilt-Shift, the TS-E 90mm f/2.8L Macro Tilt-Shift, and the long focal length TS-E 135mm f/4L Macro Tilt-Shift.
As for mirrorless cameras, the RF 35mm f/1.8 in the EOS R line is a macro STM with a 1:2 increase, while the APS-C to-Confusion-EF-M 28mm f/3.5 macro is an STM 1.2x.
Fujifilm 80mm f/2.8 r lm ois wr
Fujifilm has two macro lenses for cameras with bayonet x: 60mm f/2.4 xf macro (1:2) and 80mm f/2.8 r lm ois WR (1:1).
For medium format chambers with bayonet g, the company offers the GF 120mm f/4 macro r lm ois WR, with a maximum increase of 1:2.
Nikon AF-S DX Micro Nikkor 40mm f/2.8G
At Nikon, you will find a macro lens for every purpose and task. For Nikon APS-C (DX) cameras: AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 40mm f/2.8G and AF-S DX Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/3.5G ED VR (with optical stabilization system). The maximum magnification ratio for both models is 1:1. The 105mm NIKKOR macro lens is available in two versions: the original Micro-NIKKOR 105mm f/2.8 with manual focus and 1:2 ratio and the latest version, the AF-S VR Micro-NIKKOR 105mm f/2.8G IF-ED. Stabilization and reproduction of objects at life-size (1:1).
Regular focal length macros include the legendary Micro-NIKKOR 55mm f/2.8 with manual focus and 1:2 ratio, the AF Micro-NIKKOR 60mm f/2.8D (1:1), and its new version, the AF-S Micro-NIKKOR 60mm. f/2.8GED. the far end of the focal length — AF Micro-NIKKOR 200mm f/4D IF-ED (1:1).
There are also two PC-E series tilt-shift lenses offering 0.5x magnification: the PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 45mm f/2.8D ED and the PC-E Micro-NIKKOR 85mm f/2.8D.
Olympus M.ZUIKO DIGITAL ED 30mm f/3.5
Olympus has two macro lenses for micro 4:3 cameras. M.ZUIKO DIGITAL ED 60mm F2.8 (1:1) and M.ZUIKO DIGITAL ED 30mm F3.5 (1.25x). The equivalent focal lengths of these lenses are 120mm and 60mm, respectively.
Lumix G MACRO 30mm F2.8
For full-frame L-mount cameras, Panasonic has the Lumix S 24-105mm f/4 Macro O.I.S. It has a focal length of 30mm f/2.8 and a focal length of 30mm f/2.8. 1:2 magnification. For Micro 4:3 format cameras — Lumix G MACRO 30mm f/2.8 and Leica DG Macro-Elmarit 45mm f/2.8 ASPH. both MEGA O.I.S. with a maximum magnification of 1:1. The equivalent focal lengths are 60mm and 90mm, respectively.
Sigma 70mm f/2.8 DG Macro Art
The Sigma 70mm f/2.8 DG Macro Art is available in Canon EF, Nikon F, Sigma SA, Sony E, and Leica L mounts with a 1:1 lens magnification.
Sony FE 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS. source: bhphotovideo.com
Sony’s macro lens for E-mount mirrorless cameras offers a maximum zoom ratio of 1:1. For full-frame cameras, there is the popular FE 90mm f/2.8 Macro G OSS telephoto lens and the regular focal length option, the FE 50mm f/2.8 Macro. The APS-C model lineup includes the very compact E 30mm f/3.5 Macro. Sony also offers two lenses for older A-mount SLRs. The telephoto 100mm f/2.8 Macro and the regular 50mm f/2.8 Macro, also with a maximum zoom ratio of 1:1.
Tamron SP 90mm f/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 VC USD
Available for Canon, Nikon, and Sony cameras, the Tamron SP 60mm f/2 Di II Macro offers 1:1 playback. Tamron also offers three versions of its 90mm macro lens. The newest is the SP 90mm f/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 VC USD for Canon, Nikon, and Sony A. The older two versions also offer 1:1 reproduction. The two older versions still reproduce the subject life-size.
*Resources bhphotovideo.com and onfoto.ru were used in preparing the article